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Syngas production

Steam reforming

The choice of the optimal catalyst is based on different parameters including furnace design, accurate service and type of the used hydrocarbon. You can find our recommendations for catalysts in the table below.  

 ReforMax 330 LDPReforMax 210 LDPReforMax 450 LDP

Nominal Content [wt.%]

NG

NG/LPG

Naphtha

Typical feed

 

 

 

Ni

11

14,5

5,5

K2O

-

1.5

6

Carrier

CaAl12O19

Ca2K2Al22O38

Al2O3

Shape

10-hole rings

10-hole rings

Multiple-hole rings

Size [mm]

19 x 16

19 x 12

16 x 16 x 6

 

Autothermal reforming

Oxygen-powered autothermal reformers require a mixed catalyst loading, which contains an active heat-shield catalyst as well as a reforming catalyst with excellent material stability and thermoshock resistance. The normal catalyst charging is approx. 5–10% ReforMax 420 based on the catalyst ReforMax 330 LDP.

 ReforMax 420ReforMax 330 LDP

Nominal Content [wt.%]

 

 

Ni

5,8

11

Carrier

α-Al₂O₃

CaAl₁₂O₁₉

Shape

Extrudate

10-hole rings

Size [mm]

30

19 x 16

 

Secondary reforming

The optimum catalyst for an air-driven reformer depends on the design of the burner and the distance between the burner tip and the upper catalyst layer. Therefore, we recommend the integration of an upper layer with ReforMax 400, which serves as an active heat-shield. This material is also suitable as bottom active layer, when very short reactor loadings are needed, and / or when ultrapure inert carriers can be replaced by an active catalyst. The catalyst ReforMax 410 LDP is used as middle layer for the main loading of the reactor.

 ReforMax 400ReforMax 410 LDP

Nominal content [wt.%]

 

 

NiO

9

11.5

Carrier

α-Al₂O₃

CaAl₁₂O₁₉

Shape

6-hole rings

10-hole rings

Size [mm]

33 x 18

19 x 16


Sulphur in organic compounds can be removed either as already existing H2S or by hydrodesulphurisation to H₂S followed by adsorption of the latter. The ActiSorb S 7 catalyst is recommended for the removal of H2S, mercaptans, disulphides and thiophenes in hydrocarbon feedstreams, ranging from naphtha to middle distillates. The achieved purity is less than 0.1 ppm wt. sulphur

 ActiSorb S 7

Nominal Content [wt.%]

 

NiO

52

Binder

Rest

Shape

CDS Extrudate

Size [mm]

1.5

Hydrodesulphurisation

The standard catalysts for the hydrodesulphurization of organic sulphur compounds in a hydrocarbon feed are the Cobalt Molybdenum catalysts from the HDMax 200 series. These catalysts are used for all hydrocarbon types like naphtha, LPG, natural gas and exhaust gases in liquid as well as in gas phase. They are also used for the saturation of olefins.

For the hydrodesulphurization of organic nitrogen containing compounds and / or for the saturation of a variety of feedstocks our Nickel Molybdenum based HDMax 300 catalyst is recommended.
 

 HDMax 200HDMax 201

Nominal Content [wt.%]

 

 

CoO

3–5

NiO

3–6

MoO₃

10

17

Al₂O₃

Rest

Rest

Shape

CDS Extrudate
TRIAX Extrudate

CDS Extrudate
TRIAX Extrudate

Size [mm]

2.5

2.5

H₂S removal

The ActiSorb S series of ZnO-based adsorbents are used for the removal of sulphur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, mercaptanes and COS from hydrocarbon feed streams.

The ActiSorb S2 is the perfect solution, when the working conditions are high space velocities and increased temperature.

The ActiSorb S3, on the other hand, is recommended for lower space velocities and higher sulphur inlet concentrations.

The maximum bulk density of the catalyst ActiSorb S1 is perfect for applications in which the feed material exhibits high sulphur inlet concentrations and for which a maximum sulphur absorption per volume unit is required.

In some cases it is necessary to reduce the sulphur level to a value below 10 ppb H2S. Therefore, the ActiSorb S6, a copper doped zinc oxide, is placed at the bottom of the standard Zinc oxide reactor. In this layer ActiSorb S6 removes the remaining H2S content to a level below 10 ppb H2S within a wide range of possible operating conditions (Deep desulfurization).

 

 ActiSorb S 1ActiSorb S 2ActiSorb S 3

Nominal Content [wt.%]

 

 

 

ZnO

100

90

90

Al₂O₃

Rest

Rest

Shape

Extrudate

Extrudate

Extrudate with high shipping density

Size [mm]

4.5

4.5

4.5

 

 ActiSorb S 6

Nominal Content [wt.%]

 

CuO

Protected

ZnO

Protected

Al₂O₃

Rest

Shape

Tablets

Size [mm]

5 x 3

 

The purification of natural gas with low sulphur content can be performed with ActiSorb G1, a well-established ZnO-catalyst. A unique property of the ActiSorb G1 is the simultaneous hydrodesulphurization and H2S absorption. Even in a saturated state ActiSorb G1 keeps its full hydrogenation potential.

 ActiSorb G 1

Nominal Content [wt.%]

 

CuO

1.5

MoO₃

1.8

ZnO + Binder

Rest

Shape

Extrudate

Size [mm]

4.5

 

Deep desulfurisation

For the reduction of the H2S content from < 0.1 ppm to < 10 ppb ActiSorb S6 is recommended. Actisorb S6 is a copper doped zinc oxide that is placed at the bottom of the ActiSorb S2 (ZnO adsorbent) reactor. The layer of ActiSorb S6 reduces the content of H2S down to a value of 10 ppb H2S in a wide range of applicable operating conditions.

 

 


Most of the ammonium plants turn CO to CO2 with a high temperature water gas shift reaction (HTS, HT-WGS) followed by a low temperature water gas shift-reaction (LTS, LT-WGS). For special processes it may be an advantage to combine both process steps to a single isothermal or adiabatic process, a medium temperature CO conversion (MTS).
 

High-temperature CO Conversion (HTS)

The HTS catalyst ShiftMax 120 HCF presents the essentially Cr(VI) free alternative to the most widely used Fe2O3-Cr2O3-CuO catalyst ShiftMax 120 for the HTS reaction and combines like the latter high activity with extremely good physical robustness. In addition, this catalyst is very effective in preventing Fischer-Tropsch by-product formation when operating at low steam / gas ratios.

On request C&CS will be pleased to send you a broschure to the new HTS catalyst ShiftMax 120 HCF.

 ShiftMax 120 HCF/ShiftMax 120

Shape

Tablets

Size [mm]

6 x 6 other sizes on request

 

Low-temperature CO conversion (LTS)

The LTS catalysts ShiftMax 230 and ShiftMax 240 are state-of-the-art products featuring excellent copper dispersion leading to unparalleled activity for water-gas shift (LT-WGS). These catalysts feature higher CO conversion for longer life, enhanced resistance to poisons, and superior physical strength. The promoter in ShiftMax 240 suppresses the formation of methanol by more than 95% compared to standard LTS catalysts without decreasing activity.

 ShiftMax 230ShiftMax 240

Nominal Content [wt.%]

 

 

CuO

58

58

ZnO

31

31

Al₂O₃

11

11

Promoter

1

Shape

Tablets

Tablets

Size [mm]

5 x 3

5 x 3

 


C&CS offers a range of different adsorbents for the removal of HCl, ammonium chlorides and organic chlorine compounds, depending on the hydrocarbon feedstock and operating conditions.

ActiSorb Cl 2  and ActiSorb Cl 6 are used for liquid phase applications, while ActiSorb Cl 2 and ActiSorb Cl 3 adsorbents are recommended in the gas phase.

ActiSorb Cl 3 and ActiSorb Cl 6 were developed for the removal of HCl and organic chlorides from the exit streams of the continuous catalytic reforming (CCR) process to prevent chloride corrosion, polymer disposal or green oil generation on downstream devices.

 

 ActiSorb Cl 2ActiSorb Cl 3ActiSorb Cl 6

Content includes Na₂O, ZnO, Al₂O₃ and promoter

 

 

 

Shape

Spheres

Extrudate

CDS - Extrudate

Size [mm]

3–5

2.5

1.6


Hydrogen and carbon monoxide can be produced by steam reforming  of methanol, which is performed with the catalyst ReforMax M. 
 

 Reformax M

Nominal Content [wt.%]

 

CuO

60

ZnO

30

Al₂O₃

Rest

Shape

Tablets

Size [mm]

6 x 4

 


Carbon dioxide is removed from hydrogen in large commercial hydrogen plants via pressure swing adsorption (PSA). In the same way also methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, water and argon can be removed from hydrogen. Typical purifications for hydrogen higher than 99.99 vol.-% can be achieved by means of the PSA process. Our activated carbon C&CS #540 and molecular sieve 5A C&CS #642 are high-quality adsorbents for the purification of hydrogen in pressure swing adsorption systems (PSA).
 

Active carbon (C&CS #540)

C&CS #540 is an activated carbon in pellet form produced for steam reforming. It is designed for air and gas purification processes. C&CS #540 is generally used for the following applications:

  • Air conditioning and ventilation systems
  • Removal of industrial smells 
  • Removal of volatile organic components
  • Removal of carbon [monoxide], methane, ethane and ethylene from hydrogen in PSA-plants
 C&CS #540

Density [kg/m3]

490

Iodine number

min. 900

Durability

min. 95

BET surface [m2/g]

950

Shape

Pellet

Size [mm]

4

 

Molecular sieve 5A (C&CS #642)

The molecular sieve 5A (C&CS #642) is an alkali-aluminum silicate with a type A structure and an effective pore size of 5 Angström. C&CS #642 is generally used for the following applications: 

  • Drying of all gas and liquid streams
  • Separation of n-hydrocarbons and i-hydrocarbons
  • Purification of hydrogen in PSA processes
 C&CS #642

Density [kg/m3]

720

Compressive strength [N]

20–70

Weight capacity (H2O) [wt.-%]

20

Shape

Spheres

Size [mm]

1–2, 2–3 or 2,5–5