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Hydrogenation

Hydrogenation / Production for fine chemicals

From the different processes in the production of fine chemicals and chemical specialties the hydrogenation is one of the most important processes. In this process hydrogenation catalysts are used. Hydrogenation catalysts are also used for dehydrogenation, amination and hydrogenolysis reactions. Such heterogeneous catalysts dominate the production steps for the fabrication of fine chemicals and chemical specialties. The most important applications are in the industrial sectors of the production of chemical intermediates, fragrances and flavors, food- and animal feed-additives, agro chemicals and pharmaceutical active ingredients.

C&CS offers you the following catalysts for hydrogenation as well as for the production of fine chemicals:

  • G-22 in different shapes: Powder, Tablets
  • G-22/2 in different shapes: Powder, Tablets
  • G-99 B-0: Tablets
  • G-99 C-0: Powder
  • T-4419: Tablets
  • T-4466: Powder
  • T-4489 in different shapes: Powder, Tablets
  • NISAT 320®RS (Powder; RS = reduced and stabilized)
  • Pt/C
  • Pd/C


Hydrogenations of nitriles are basically performed with long-chained nitriles, especially with fatty acid nitriles. In this process, Nickel catalysts are used in the slurry.

 

 

NiSAT® 320 RS

NiSAT® 310 RS

Nominal content wt.%

Ni

55

52

Support

SiO2

SiO2-Al2O3

Shape

Powder

Extrudates

Size [mm]

1.6

 


The hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline is either performed in a discontinuous slurry-process based on Nickel catalysts or in an isothermal process in the gas phase by use of Copper catalysts to avoid attacks on the aromatic ring and side reactions to diphenylamine.

 

 

NiSAT® 320 RS

NiSAT® 310 RS

Nominal content wt.%

Ni

55

52

Support

SiO2

SiO2-Al2O3

Shape

Powder

Extrudates

Size [mm]

1.6

 


This process contains the following steps: Benzene is firstly hydrogenated to cyclohexane. Cyclohexane is then oxidated to a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. The cyclohexanol is dehydrated to cyclohexanone. In a subsequent reaction step cyclohexanonoxim is formed by reaction of cyclohexanone with hydroxyl amine in form of an suitable salt. After formation of the oxime caprolactam is received by performing a Beckmann rearrangement.

For the hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane Nickel catalysts are either used in slurry or in continuous procedures with isothermal fixed bed reactors, from which the latter is more frequently used. NiSAT®320RS powder is used for the slurry procedures, while NiSAT®310 RS is recommended for the fixed bed processes.   
 

 

NiSAT® 320 RS

Nominal content wt.%

Ni

55

Support

SiO2

Shape

Powder

 


Oxo-alcohol-process chains usually start with the fine cleaning of olefins such as propene or the desulphurization of C7- to C11-olefines for higher alcohols. To this belongs the hydrogenation of raw aldehyde to alcohol (generally with fine cleaning, which lowers the carbonyl-values of the finished alcohol).
 

G-22 Series

 

G-22

G-22/2

Nominal content wt.%

Cu

33

33,7

Cr

29,5

24

Ba

11

5

SiO2

Balance

Shape

Powder

Tablets

Size [mm]

4,5 x 3

3 x 3

G-99 Series

 

G 99 B-0

G-99 C-0

Nominal content wt.%

Cu

37,5

37,5

Cr

31,5

31,5

Mn

2,45

2,45

Ba

2

2

Shape

Tablets

Powder

Size [mm]

3 x 3 / 5 x 5

T-4489 

A chrome free, copper and aluminum oxide based hydrogenation catalyst for the gas phase-hydrogenation of oxo-aldehydes with high acid stability comparable with a standard copper chromite catalyst

 

T-4489

Nominal content wt.%

Cu

45

Mn

6,5

AI

28

Shape

Tablets

Size [mm]

3 x 3


Natural cleaning supplies or fatty alcohols are obtained from natural oils, mainly laurine. The latest process variants are: I) the direct hydrogenation of the equivalent fatty acid, or II) the hydrogenation of the equivalent methyl ester (FAME) or III) the hydrogenation of wax ester. The catalysts are brought up as oxidic powders in slurry-processes or in in fixed bed processes. Generally they are pre reduced and stabilized. 
 

G-99 Serie

 

G-99 B-0

G-99 C-0

Nominal content wt.%

Cu

37,5

37,5

Cr

31,5

31,5

Mn

4

4

Ba

2

2

Shape

Tablets

Powder

Size [mm]

3x3

T-4489

A chrome free, copper and aluminum oxide based hydrogenation catalyst  with a high acid stability comparable with a standard-copper chromite catalyst.

 

T-4489

Nominal content wt.%

Cu

45

Mn

6,5

Al2O3

Balance

Shape

Tablets

Size [mm]

3x3

T-4419 /T-4421

 

T-4419

T-4421

Nominal content wt.%

Cu

62,5

66

Cr2O3

13,5

30

Shape

Tablets

Tablets

Size [mm]

3 x 3

4,5 x 4,5

 


The production of diols (bi-functional alcohols) depends on either the direct hydrogenation of the equivalent anhydrides in the gas phase or on the hydrogenation of the methyl esters of the particular acids in the gas, liquid or trickle phase. The hydrogenation is performed in fixed bed reactors.
 

T-4489

A chromium free, copper and aluminum oxide based hydrogenation catalyst with high acid stability comparable with a standard-copper chromite catalyst.

 

T-4489

Nominal content wt.%

CuO

56

MnO2

10

Al2O3

Balance

Shape

Tablets

Size [mm]

3 x 3

T-4466

A very acid-stable copper-manganese catalyst. It can be used for the hydrogenation of maleic acid-di-ester with high residual contents of acid.

 

T-4466

Nominal content wt.%

CuO

53

MnO2

45

Shape

Tablets

Size [mm]

3 x 3

 


For methylamines (short-chained amines) aluminosilicates and zeolites are suitable as catalysts. For longer-chained amines like ethyl- and propylamine Nickel- or Cobalt-catalysts are preferred. For long-chained amines Copper-catalysts or Copper chromite catalysts are applied. 
 

Nickel Catalysts

 

NiSAT® 320 RS

NiSAT® 310 RS

Nominal content wt.%

Ni

55

52

Support

SiO2

SiO2-Al2O3

Shape

Powder

Extrudates

Size [mm]

1.6