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Gas purification

The purity of different gases and compounds for industrial procedures and processes can only be provided by an effective catalytic and / or adsorptive  gas purification. C&CS offers numerous highly active catalysts as well as high-performance adsorbents for the following tasks of gas purification:

Ammonia is very often a contaminant in exhaust gases. To reduce its emission to the environment, it is typically dissociated in nitrogen and hydrogen at high temperatures. Because of these conditions a mechanically very stable catalyst is necessary. For this application ReforMax® 117 is the suitable Nickel catalyst, that shows with a MgO support and an enlarged surface area provided by the ripped ring form maximum catalytic activity. 
 

 

ReforMax® 117

Ni [wt.-%]

6

MgO [wt.-%]

Rest

Shape

Ripped Ring

Size [mm]

16 x 16 x 6

 

C&CS offers different solutions for the removal of oxygen from different gas streams:

 


ActiSorb® O3 is a noble metal catalyst, that is used for the removal of oxygen from hydrogen containing streams. By means of this catalyst oxygen reacts with hydrogen to water. For this the hydrogen content of the gas stream must be at least two times as high as the one of oxygen. The oxygen content can be reduced to values < 1 ppmv. The produced water of the above reaction can be reduced to a level of < 1 ppmv by using the molecular sieve 13X (C&CS #597).

 

 

C&CS 597

Density [kg/m3]

650

Compressive strenght [N]

70

Equilibrium capacity (H2O) [wt.-%]

25

Shape

Spheres

Size [mm]

1,5–2,5 or 2,5–5

 


Traces of oxygen in inert gases can be removed with copper doped catalysts (C&CS #592). Before use in this application C&CS 592 is to be reduced with a mixture of hydrogen andinert gas (typical hydrogen content 2 – 5 vol.-%) on-site. By means of C&CS #592 oxygen can be removed down to the lower single-digit ppm range. This is amongst other things desirable in glove-boxes.

 

 

C&CS 592

CuO [Gew.-%]

60

Support

Rest

Shape

Tablet

Size [mm]

6 x 4

 

 

Further information about suitable products for the removal of oxygen in the initial gas for the production of ethylene is available on request.

For H₂S removal e.g. from natural gas, C&CS offers the ZnO based adsorbents "ActiSorb S2" und "ActiSorb G1", well-known and established in industry. ActiSorb S2 is an adsorbent with a very high adsorption capacity. ActiSorb G1 allows combined hydrodesulfuration and H₂S removal in only one product.

In addition, C&CS offers for special applications an activated carbon based solution (C&CS #868).

Please contact C&CS for the proper selection of the suitable adsorbent.

For CO removal by the methanation reaction (CO + 3 H2 -> CH4 + H2O) C&CS offers the methanation catalyst Meth 134.

 


C&CS #470 is a versatile drying agent for the drying of different gas and liquid streams. C&CS #470 features a high active surface, high compressive strength, low abrasion properties  as well as a high adsorption capacity. Most of the gases and liquids can be dried with C&CS #470. Because of its adsorption and desorption properties C&CS #470 is suited for drying bothl in the thermal regenerative mode as well as in the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) mode.
 

 

C&CS #470

Al2O3 [wt.-%]

93

Fe2O3 [wt.-%]

max. 0,02

SiO2 [wt.-%]

max. 0,02

Density [kg/m3]

770

BET surface [m2/g]

320–360

Shape

Spheres

Size [mm]

2, 3, 5 or 6,5

 


C&CS #678 is a molecular sieve of the type 3A with an effective pore size of 3 Angstrom (0.3 nm). This pore volume is large enough for water molecules, but too small for other molecules. Molecular sieve 3A (C&CS #678) is typically used in the following processes:

  • Drying of natural gas
  • Drying of polar alcohols like methanol and ethanol
  • Drying of unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g. ethylene, propylene und butadiene)
  • Drying of cooling agents (e.g. R22, R134a)
     
 

C&CS #678

Density [kg/m3]

725–795

Compressive strenght [N]

25–50

Equilibrium capacity (H2O) [wt.-%]

22

Shape

Spheres

Size [mm]

1.6 –2.5  or 2.5–5

 

C&CS #595 is a molecular sieve of the type 4A with an effective pore size of 4 Angstrom (0.38 nm). C&CS #595 adsorbs most of the molecules with a kinetic diameter smaller than 4 Angstrom (e.g. water, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxides and long-chained hydrocarbons) and is not passable for molecules with a higher diameter. The molecular sieve 4A (C&CS #595) is normally used for drying and removal of CO2 from natural gas, LPG, air and inert or atmospheric gas.
 

 

C&CS #595

Density [kg/m3]

725–795

Compressive strength [N]

20–50

Equilibrium Capacity (H2O) [wt.-%]

22

Shape

Spheres

Size

1.6–2.5  or 2.5–5

 


The C&CS #597 is a molecular sieve of the type 13A with an effective pore size of 9 Angstrom (0.9 nm). The C&CS #597 has got another application spectrum both in the liquid as well as in the gas phase. C&CS #597 stands out for its high adsorption capacity for water and carbon dioxide. Different molecules like hydrogen sulfides, mercaptanes, olefins, aromatics, long- and short-chained hydrocarbons, SOx- and NOx-compounds can be adsorbed with this material.

Typical applications are:

  • Air cleaning upstream of cryogenic air dissociation (H2O, CO2, C2H2, etc.)
  • Removal of mercaptanes, disulfides, carbonyl sulfides and hydrogen sulfides from hydrogen and hydrocarbon streams (e.g. natural gas)
  • Separation of oxygen from air via PSA (pressure swing adsorption)
  • Olefin purification (removal of oxygen containing  organic compounds, sulfur, ketones, carbon dioxide, etc.)
  • Removal of nitrogen containing organic compounds from hydrocarbon streams
     
 

Molecular Sieve 13X
C&CS 597

Density [kg/m3]

650

Compressive strength [N]

20 – 70

Equilibrium capacity (H2O) [wt.-%]

25

Shape

Spheres

Size [mm]

1.6 – 2.5, 2 – 3  or 2.5 – 5

 

 


The most different feed streams contain CO in a concentration from a few ppm up to 1 % that is to be reduced to a level under 10 ppb. The catalyst is selected according to the process type and task , e.g. a Ni-catalyst for the methanation of CO in hydrogen streams (s. a. the button "Methanation for CO removal") and a CuO catalyst to remove CO from ethylene and nitrogen by absorption in a catalytic reaction by feeding of air / Oxygen.

 

 

C&CS 466

CuO [wt.-%]

proprietary

MnO [wt.-%]

proprietary

Shape

Granulate

Size [mm]

0,8–1,5; 1–2 and 2–5

 


C&CS #466 is effectively used to convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (2 CO + O2 -> 2 CO2) in compressed breathing air, respirators, masks and by cryogenic purification. This catalyst – denoted hopcalite – already reacts at room temperature.
 

 

C&CS 466

CuO [wt.-%]

proprietary

MnO2 [wt.-%]

proprietary

Shape

Granulate

Size [mm]

0,8–1,5; 1–2 and 2–5


In steam cracker plants the hydrogen contains 0.2 – 1 % vol. CO and no CO2. A CO-methanation should ideally be operated at the lowest temperature possible. To realize that, C&CS offers you a Ru catalyst, whose working temperature is about 170° C. Moreover, C&CS provides Ni catalysts, whose operating temperature has to be well above 200°C to avoid the formation of toxic Ni-carbonyl Ni(CO)4.

 

 

METH 134

METH 150

NiO [wt.-%]

25

Ru [wt.-%]

0,3

Support [wt.-%]

Rest

Rest

Shape

Spheres

Tablet

Size [mm]

3–6

4,5 x 4,5


CO can be removed from nitrogen with the help of CuOcatalysts like the PolyMaxTM 301. The CO removal requires a periodic re-oxidation of the catalyst, typically with a cyclic operation with two catalyst beds. A successful operation depends on a careful monitoring of the air supply for the reduced catalyst.
 

 

PolyMax™ 301

CuO [wt.-%]

30

Support [wt.-%]

Rest

Shape

Extrudate

Size [mm]

3

 


For the removal of SO2 in industrial gas streams and exhaust gases C&CS offers the adsorbent C&CS #983. C&CS #983 is a fine sodium bicarbonate powder that is injected into the gas stream / exhaust gas and is then removed together with dust by a subsequent hot gas filter. Besides SO2, also HCl can be removed from the gas stream by this dry gas cleaning method.